Conventional lead-acid batteries and lithium batteries in their different forms are widely used in the usual technologies used in automotive and electric energy storage.
All batteries are composed of an anode, a cathode, the electrolyte (used to communicate the anode with the cathode and generate electricity), and a separator in the case of lithium batteries, to prevent an internal short-circuit caused by the power, which could compromise the battery and the connected system.
Within lead acid, there is a distinction that does not exist in lithium, the separation between automotive starting batteries, which support very high discharge peaks for a few seconds, and deep cycle batteries (and some dual), which support deeper discharges of the battery. In the attached table, we will only look at the advantages and disadvantages of starting batteries. Storage batteries are the usual lead acid batteries, with the difference of having much thicker internal plates, to improve their storage capacity with respect to automotive batteries.
|Lead Start Technology||Advantages||Disadvantages|
|Lead Acid||Lower cost|
Large number of applications
They are safe
|Few discharge cycles|
|AGM/EFB or GEL||Increased response to shocks for Start-Stop type cars|
More loading and unloading cycles
|Spiral Cell (OPTIMA)||More amperage in less space|
Support downloads well
|The highest cost of the 3|
Lithium batteries are a substantial improvement over lead-acid batteries in many factors, most notably their weight and their storage and discharge capacity.
In general, lithium wins over lead on two factors:
It withstands deeper discharges than conventional lead acid, has no memory effect and much higher energy storage with up to 10 times less weight. If the battery is of high quality, it also withstands more discharge cycles than conventional lead acid batteries.
The usual disadvantage is the possible problems in its incorrect handling, especially at high temperatures, more dangerous than lead-based accumulators, and still can not be used conventionally for automotive vehicles, by the lower capacity to provide very high peak discharge (Although the LiFEPO4 is capable of giving more than 100 or 200 Amperes of followed even for hours, lead acid batteries can start to supply more than 900 Amperes for 10 seconds, necessary for combustion engines, but not for electric motors).
|Lithium NMC||Widespread in its early applications in vehicles such as golf carts, golf carts, etc.|
If it has good electronics, it is the safest.
|Highly flammable at high temperatures.|
Reduced support for deep cycling
|Lithium ION (Li-ION)|
|The most widespread at the moment.|
Low cost (compared to other lithium alternatives)
|Flammable at high temperatures|
|Lithium ION (Li-Po)|
|It is the most unstable since when the battery is perforated it explodes (the separator is perforated).|
They are standard as they have a solid electrolyte.
Better performance and less wear and tear
They have less capacity than lithium-ION
Flammable at high temperatures
|Safer than lithium ION and NMC lithium|
More charge and discharge cycles
Safe against high temperatures and/or shocks
|Highest cost of all as it is less widespread|
*Images extracted from: http://navarrof.orgfree.com/Docencia/Quimica/UT4/electro2.htm y https://es.quora.com/Por-qu%C3%A9-se-degradan-las-bater%C3%ADas-de-los-m%C3%B3viles-iones-de-litio